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Music Style Is Called Supremacist Recruiting Tool

MILWAUKEE — The shooting rampage by an avowed white supremacist that killed six people at a suburban Sikh Temple near here came at a time of both growth and disarray in the supremacist movement.


Though data collected by the Southern Poverty Law Center, which monitors hate groups, shows that the number of ultra-right-wing militias and white power organizations has grown sharply since the election of President Obama in 2008, the movement is more decentralized and in many ways more disorganized than ever, experts and movement leaders say.

根据监视仇恨团体的南部贫困法律中心(Southern Poverty Law Center)所收集的数据,自2008年奥巴马在总统大选中胜出以来,极右翼民兵和白人至上主义组织飞速发展。专家和运动领导人称,这些组织的权力更为分散,在很多方面,架构也比以往更为紊乱。

“There is plenty of frustration and defeatism in the white nationalist movement,” Don Black, director of Stormfront, the largest white nationalist online discussion forum in the world, said in an interview. Calling Mr. Obama “a symptom of the multiculturalism that has undermined our country,” Mr. Black added that “there is no preeminent organization today.”

“白人民族主义者运动中充斥着挫败感和失败主义,” “风暴前线”(Stormfront)的负责人唐·布莱克(Don Black)在一次采访中说。他称奥巴马是“多元文化主义的病征,而多元文化主义正在削弱我们的国家。”他还补充说,“今天已经没有一个组织可以独占鳌头。”“风暴前线”是全球最大的白人民族主义者在线论坛。

Yet the shootings also shined a light on an obscure cultural scene that is helping keep the movement energized and providing it with a powerful tool for recruiting the young and disaffected: white power music, widely known as “hatecore.”


For more than a decade, Wade M. Page, a former soldier who the police say was the lone gunman — and who was himself killed by a police officer on Sunday — played guitar and bass with an array of heavy metal bands that trafficked in the lyrics of hate.

警方称,韦德·M·佩奇(Wade M. Page)是枪击案中的唯一枪手,上周日,他被一名警察击毙。在过去的10年里,他曾先后在许多不同的重金属乐队里担任吉他手和贝斯手,这些乐队的歌曲中充斥着表达憎恨的歌词。

Even in Mr. Page’s below-the-radar world, those bands — Blue Eyed Devils, Intimidation One and his own, End Apathy — provided a touchstone and a gateway to a larger cause, as they have for many others in recent years.

即便在佩奇那个本不为人知的世界里,那些乐队­­——“蓝眼恶魔”(Blue Eyed Devils)、“恐吓一号”(Intimidation One)、以及他自己组建的“结束麻木”(End Apathy)——在近些年为很多人提供了一个试金石和和一个通向更大事业的入口。

“It is one of the pillars of the white supremacist subculture,” Mark Pitcavage, director of investigative research at the Anti-Defamation League, said of white power music. “The message can motivate people to action, cause them to be proud of themselves and their cause. It can aggravate anger levels. It can rouse resentment.”

“它是白人至上主义亚文化的支柱之一,”反诽谤联盟(Anti-Defamation League)的调查研究主管迈克·皮特卡瓦奇(Mark Pitcavage)在提到白人力量音乐时这样说。“它传达的信息会激发人们采取行动,使他们对自己和自己从事的事业感到自豪。它能加重人们的怒火,激起愤恨。”

Arno Michaelis, the former leader of a white power band called Centurion, whose CD “14 Words” has sold 20,000 copies worldwide, recalls being swept away when he heard racist music from the British skinhead group Skrewdriver in the 1990s.

阿尔诺·米凯利斯(Arno Michaelis)曾是白人至上乐队“百夫长”(Centurion)的领导者。该乐队的专辑 “14个词”的全球销量达到2万张。米凯利斯回忆说,20世纪90年代,他听到英国光头党组织“Skrewdriver”的种族主义音乐后,便深陷其中,不能自拔。

“Listening to that music was an essential part of how we rallied around the idea of racism,” said Mr. Michaelis, now 41. “It made me feel I was part of something greater, that I had purpose and that my race was something very special and was something I needed to defend.”


A Milwaukee resident, Mr. Michaelis distanced himself from the racist scene years ago, but received a call in 2005 from a German neo-Nazi who wanted him to reunite with Centurion for a European tour. The call prompted him to help form an organization, Life After Hate, that evangelizes against racism.

米凯利斯住在密尔沃基,他已经远离种族主义环境很多年了。然而,2005年,他接到德国新纳粹主义者的电话,希望他能为一次欧洲巡演重回“百夫长”乐团。这个电话促使他协助组建了反种族主义宣传组织“憎恨过后的人生”(Life After Hate)。

Though what may have set off the rampage remains a mystery to investigators, Mr. Page’s life as a white power musician playing violence-inciting songs was surprisingly open. He did interviews, posted photos on MySpace pages (one shows him playing guitar with a noose in the background), performed at festivals and even spoke candidly about his beliefs with an academic researching the movement.


The academic, Peter Simi, an associate professor of criminology at the University of Nebraska, Omaha, said he met Mr. Page in Southern California in 2001, when Mr. Page was living with a white supremacist whom Mr. Simi had followed.

这位学者是内布拉斯加大学奥马哈分校(University of Nebraska, Omaha)的犯罪学副教授彼得·西米(Peter Simi)。他说他2001年在南加州认识了佩奇。当时佩奇和一名白人至上主义者住在一起。西米曾研究过这名白人至上主义者。

Mr. Simi said Mr. Page told him that he had first come in contact with racist skinheads in Denver as an adolescent, but became a true convert after joining the Army in 1992. Mr. Page received a general discharge in 1998 after being knocked down a rank to specialist for misconduct.


“He told me if you don’t go into the military as a racist, you will certainly come out as one,” Mr. Simi said in an interview. “He felt the deck was stacked against whites in the military, and that blacks got all the promotions and were not disciplined for misconduct.”


Racist and neo-Nazi rock began as an offshoot of British punk in the late 1970s, appropriating both its shaved-head style and so-called oi sound featuring slashing guitar chords and barked vocals. By the 1990s, the music had become heavier, louder and darker, featuring violent diatribes against blacks, Jews and, later, gays and immigrants.


In 1999, the National Alliance, founded by William Pierce, author of the 1978 white supremacist novel “The Turner Diaries,” bought Resistance Records, the largest and most prominent label for white power music. The acquisition signaled the growing importance of the music to recruiting a new generation of white supremacists.

1999年,威廉·皮尔斯(William Pierce)建立的“国家联盟”(National Alliance)收购了白人力量音乐中规模最大、最知名的标志性唱片公司“抵抗唱片”(Resistance Records)。这起并购显示,音乐在吸引年青一代白人至上主义者方面的作用日渐强大。皮尔斯是1978年出版的白人至上主义小说《特纳日记》(The Turner Diaries)的作者。

“The music became not only the No. 1 recruiting tool, but also the biggest revenue source for the movement,” said Devin Burghart, who has been monitoring racist hate groups for 20 years.

“音乐不仅成为吸引新人的第一工具,而且也是白人至上运动最大的收入来源。”监测种族主义仇恨团体长达二十载的戴维·伯格哈特(Devin Burghart)说。

But Mr. Burghart and other experts on racist ideology said the movement has grown disjointed in recent years, despite the recruiting opportunities presented by an economic recession and the election of a black president.


One reason for the disarray might be the growth of a more mainstream movement, the Tea Party, whose successful forays into electoral politics have siphoned energy and support from violent fringe groups, said Chip Berlet, a Boston-based journalist who writes about right-wing groups.

在波士顿,负责报道右翼团体的记者奇普·贝莱(Chip Berlet)认为,导致这种杂乱无序的一个原因可能是更为主流的“茶党”(Tea Party)运动的壮大。 茶党成功挺进选举政治,抽走了极端暴力团体的活力,并且分流了支持者。

But the decentralization of the white supremacy movement may also encourage isolated actors — as Mr. Page appears to have been — to strike out, said Mark Potok, senior fellow at the Southern Poverty Law Center.

然而,南方贫困法律中心的资深研究员马克·波托克(Mark Potok)认为,白人至上运动的权力分化可能会鼓励孤立的行动者,例如佩奇这类人,发起攻击。

“When there are not large organizations, you are more likely to see lone wolves like Wade Page,” he said. “We are seeing a movement full of white-hot rage and frustration because they feel they have lost the battle to make America a white country.”